NATURAL GAS REPAIRS

NATURAL GAS REPAIRS

LP GAS REPAIRS

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WHAT IS NATURAL GAS?

Natural gas is  formed when layers of buried plants, gases, and animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in natural gas. Natural gas is a nonrenewable resource because it cannot be replenished on a human time frame. Natural gas is a mixture consisting primarily of METHANE, but commonly includes varying amounts of other higher ALKANES and sometimes a usually lesser percentage of CARBON DIOXIDE, NITROGEN, and/or HYDROGEN. Natural gas is an energy source often used for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of PLASTICS and other commercially important CHEMICALS

Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in COAL BEDS. PETROLEUM is another resource and fossil fuel found in close proximity to, and with natural gas. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by  organisms in  shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material.

Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must bePROCESSED  to remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas. The by-products of this processing include: ETHANE AND PROPANE, and higher molecular weight  (which may be converted into pure ),

Natural gas is often informally referred to simply as “gas”, especially when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused , especially in North America, where the term gasoline is often shortened in colloquial usage to gas.

Natural gas was used by the Chinese in about 500 BC. They discovered a way to transport gas seeping from the ground in crude pipelines of bamboo to where it was used to boil salt water  in the . The world’s first industrial extraction of natural gas started  USA in 1825.   By 2009, 66 trillion cubic meters (or 8%) had been used out of the total 850 trillion cubic meters of estimated remaining recoverable reserves of natural gas.   Based on an estimated 2015 world consumption rate of about 3.4 trillion cubic meters of gas per year, the total estimated remaining economically recoverable reserves of natural gas would last 250 years at current consumption rates. An annual increase in usage of 2–3% could result in currently recoverable reserves lasting significantly less, perhaps as few as 80 to 100 years.

 

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Power generation

Natural gas is a major source of POWER GENERATION through the use of TURBINES.   Natural gas is also well suited for a combined use in association with  sources such as wind ] and for alimenting  power stations functioning in tandem with  plants. Most grid and some off-grid  use natural gas. Particularly high efficiencies can be achieved through combining gas turbines with a steam turbine in  mode. Natural gas burns more cleanly than other such as oil and coal, and produces less carbon dioxide per unit of energy released. For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30 per cent less  than burning  and about 45 per cent less than burning   reports the following emissions in million  of carbon dioxide in the world:

  • Natural gas: 6,799
  • Petroleum: 11,695
  • Coal: 13,787

For 2012 as the official energy statistics of the US Government.

Coal-fired electric power generation emits around 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide for every megawatt hour generated, which is almost double the carbon dioxide released by a natural gas-fired electric plant per megawatt hour generated. Because of this higher carbon efficiency of natural gas generation, as the fuel mix in the United States has changed to reduce coal and increase natural gas generation, carbon dioxide emissions have unexpectedly fallen. Those measured in the first quarter of 2012 were the lowest of any recorded for the first quarter of any year since 1992.

Combined cycle power generation using natural gas is currently the cleanest available source of power using hydrocarbon fuels, and this technology is widely and increasingly used as natural gas can be obtained at increasingly reasonable costs.  technology may eventually provide cleaner options for converting natural gas into electricity, but as yet it is not price-competitive. Locally produced electricity and heat using natural gas powered Combined Heat and Power plant (CHP  plant) is considered energy efficient and a rapid way to cut carbon emissions.

 

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Natural Gas

Picture of a grassy field

Electricity Generation Technologies

Electricity from Natural Gas

Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of buried plants and animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years. The energy that the plants and animals originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of carbon in natural gas. Natural gas is combusted to generate electricity, enabling this stored energy to be transformed into usable power. Natural gas is a nonrenewable resource because it cannot be replenished on a human time frame.

The natural gas power production process begins with the extraction of natural gas, continues with its treatment and transport to the power plants, and ends with its combustion in boilers and turbines to generate electricity.

Initially, wells are drilled into the ground to remove the natural gas. After the natural gas is extracted, it is treated at gas plants to remove impurities such as hydrogen sulfide, helium, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, and moisture. Pipelines then transport the natural gas from the gas plants to power plants.
Power plants use several methods to convert gas to electricity. One method is to burn the gas in a boiler to produce steam, which is then used by a steam turbine to generate electricity. A more common approach is to burn the gas in a combustion turbine to generate electricity.

Another technology, that is growing in popularity is to burn the natural gas in a combustion turbine and use the hot combustion turbine exhaust to make steam to drive a steam turbine. This technology is called “combined cycle” and achieves a higher efficiency by using the same fuel source twice.

Environmental Impacts

Although power plants are regulated by federal and state laws to protect human health and the environment, there is a wide variation of environmental impacts associated with power generation technologies.

The purpose of the following section is to give consumers a better idea of the specific air, water, and solid waste releases associated with natural gas-fired generation.

Air Emissions

At the power plant, the burning of natural gas produces but in lower quantities than burning  , a primary component of natural gas and a greenhouse gas, can also be emitted into the air when natural gas is not burned completely. Similarly, methane can be emitted as the result of leaks and losses during transportation. Emissions from burning natural gas are negligible.

The average emissions rates in the United States from natural gas-fired generation are: 1135 lbs/MWh of carbon dioxide, 0.1 lbs/MWh of sulfur dioxide, and 1.7 lbs/MWh of nitrogen oxides.  Compared to the average air emissions from coal-fired generation, natural gas produces half as much carbon dioxide, less than a third as much nitrogen oxides, and one percent as much sulfur oxides at the power plant.  In addition, the process of extraction, treatment, and transport of the natural gas to the power plant generates additional emissions.

Water Resource Use

The burning of natural gas in combustion turbines requires very little water. However, natural gas-fired boiler and combined cycle systems do require water for cooling purposes. When power plants remove water from a lake or river, fish and other aquatic life can be killed, affecting animals and people who depend on these aquatic resources.

Water Discharges

Combustion turbines do not produce any water discharges. However, pollutants and heat build up in the water used in natural gas boilers and combined cycle systems. When these pollutants and heat reach certain levels, the water is often discharged into lakes or rivers. This discharge usually requires a permit and is monitored. For more information about these regulations,

Solid Waste Generation

The use of natural gas to create electricity does not produce substantial amounts of solid waste.

Land Resource Use

The extraction of natural gas and the construction of natural gas power plants can destroy natural habitat for animals and plants. Possible land resource impacts include erosion, loss of soil productivity, and landslides.

Reserves

In 2003, natural gas reserves in the United States were estimated to be 1,338 trillion cubic feet, and U.S. gas production was 18.6 trillion cubic feet.

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Acid Rain
Definition: Acid rain is a term used to describe several ways that acidic compounds fall out of the atmosphere, causing a variety of ground-level environmental effects. These effects include damage to forests and soils, fish and other living things, and human health. Acid rain also reduces how clearly we can see

Annual Consumption
Definition: Annual consumption refers to the amount of electricity used by a consumer in one year and is typically measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). This information can be acquired from your electricity bill or by contacting your energy provider.
Arsenic
Definition: Arsenic is a highly poisonous semi-metallic element. According to a 1999 study by the National Academy of Sciences, arsenic can cause bladder, lung, and skin cancer and may cause kidney and liver cancer. The study also found that arsenic harms the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as heart

Carbon Dioxide
Definition: A naturally occurring gas, and also a by-product of burning fossil fuelsHelp fossil fuels Fossil fuels are the nation’s principal source of electricity. The popularity of these fuels is largely due to their low costs. Fossil fuels come in three major forms-coal, oil, and natural gas. Because fossil fuels are a finite resource and cannot be replenished once they are extracted and burned, they are not considered renewable. and biomass, as well as land-use changes and other industrial processes. It is the principal anthropogenic greenhouse gas that affects the earth’s radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are

Carbon Monoxide
Definition: Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless gas resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Carbon monoxide interferes with blood’s ability to carry oxygen to the body’s tissues and results in numerous adverse health effects.
Climate Change
Definition: Climate change refers to any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). Climate change may result from: Natural factors, such as changes in the sun’s intensity or slow changes in the earth’s orbit around

Coal
Definition: Coal is formed from plant and animal matter that has been subjected to geologic heat and pressure, transformed over millions of years into hard black solids. Because coal is a readily available resource in the United States, coal power plants provide about half of the nation’s electricity. However, coal-fired

Combined Heat and Power
Definition: Combined heat and power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is an efficient, clean, and reliable approach to generating power and thermal energy from a single fuel source. CHP is not a specific technology but an application of technologies to meet an energy user’s needs. CHP systems achieve typical effective

Commercial Energy Customer
Definition: A commercial energy customer refers to non-industrial customers occupying retail space or office buildings.
Competitive Markets
Definition: Until recently, most consumers received generation, transmission, and distribution services from one local utilityHelp utility A utility is a municipal or private business that provides electricity to the public and is subject to governmental regulation. company. As a regulated monopoly, the utility was given an exclusive franchise to provide electricity to consumers in any particular community. Rates were set, and consumers had little choice

Dioxins
Definition: Dioxins are man-made chemical compounds that enter the air through fuel and waste emissions, including motor vehicle exhaust fumes and garbage incineration. Skin rashes, liver damage, weight loss, and a reduction in the effectiveness of the immune system have all been attributed to human exposure to dioxins.
Electricity Supplier
Definition: As states restructure their electricity markets, an increasing number of customers will be able to choose from a range of energy suppliers who market different types of power products, including green powerHelp green power Electricity that is generated from renewable energy sources is often referred to as “green power.” Green power products can include electricity generated exclusively from renewable resources or, more frequently, electricity produced from a combination of fossil and renewable resources. Also known as “blended” products, these products typically have lower prices than 100 percent renewable products. Customers who take advantage of these options usually pay a premium for having some or all of their electricity produced from renewable resources. To find out more about green power, visit EPA’s Green Power Partnership Web site. http://www.epa.gov/greenpower/ from renewable energyHelp renewable energy The term renewable energy generally refers to electricity supplied from renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, geothermal, hydropower, and various forms of biomass. These energy sources are considered renewable sources because they are continuously replenished on the Earth.. Restructured local utilities offer electricity products generated exclusively

Energy Efficiency
Definition: Energy efficiency refers to products or systems using less energy to do the same or better job than conventional products or systems. Energy efficiency saves energy, saves money on utilityHelp utility A utility is a municipal or private business that provides electricity to the public and is subject to governmental regulation. bills, and helps protect the environment by reducing the amount of electricity that needs to be generated. When

Fossil Fuels
Definition: Fossil fuels are the nation’s principal source of electricity. The popularity of these fuels is largely due to their low costs. Fossil fuels come in three major forms-coal, oilHelp oil Oil, a liquid fossil fuel, is formed from layers of buried plants and animals that have been subjected to geologic heat and pressure over a long period of time. The energy that the plants and animals originally obtained from the sun is stored in the oil in the form of carbon. In addition to carbon, oil contains elements such as nitrogen, sulfur, mercury, lead, and arsenic. Oil is a nonrenewable resource because it cannot be replenished on a human time frame., and natural gasHelp natural gas Underground deposits of gases consisting of 50 to 90 percent methane (Ch3) and small amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds such as propane (C�H�) and butane (C�H��).. Because fossil fuels are a finite resource and cannot be replenished once they are extracted and burned, they

Global Climate Change
Definition: Global climate change could result in sea level rises, changes to patterns of precipitation, increased variability in the weather, and a variety of other consequences. These changes threaten our health, agriculture, water resources, forests, wildlife, and coastal areas. For more information on the science

Green Power
Definition: Electricity that is generated from renewable energyHelp renewable energy The term renewable energy generally refers to electricity supplied from renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, geothermal, hydropower, and various forms of biomass. These energy sources are considered renewable sources because they are continuously replenished on the Earth. sources is often referred to as “green power.” Green power products can include electricity generated exclusively from renewable resources or, more frequently, electricity produced from a combination of fossil and renewable resources. Also known as

Green Power Marketers
Definition: Due to increased customer awareness of the environmental implications associated with power generation, a growing number of utilities and other types of energy service providers have begun offering green powerHelp green power Electricity that is generated from renewable energy sources is often referred to as “green power.” Green power products can include electricity generated exclusively from renewable resources or, more frequently, electricity produced from a combination of fossil and renewable resources. Also known as “blended” products, these products typically have lower prices than 100 percent renewable products. Customers who take advantage of these options usually pay a premium for having some or all of their electricity produced from renewable resources. To find out more about green power, visit EPA’s Green Power Partnership Web site. http://www.epa.gov/greenpower/ products. The term “green power marketers” usually refers to energy providers operating in

Green Power Purchasing
Definition: Green powerHelp Green power Electricity that is generated from renewable energy sources is often referred to as “green power.” Green power products can include electricity generated exclusively from renewable resources or, more frequently, electricity produced from a combination of fossil and renewable resources. Also known as “blended” products, these products typically have lower prices than 100 percent renewable products. Customers who take advantage of these options usually pay a premium for having some or all of their electricity produced from renewable resources. To find out more about green power, visit EPA’s Green Power Partnership Web site. http://www.epa.gov/greenpower/ can be purchased nationwide from several sources. Green power marketersHelp Green power marketers Due to increased customer awareness of the environmental implications associated with power generation, a growing number of utilities and other types of energy service providers have begun offering green power products. The term “green power marketers” usually refers to energy providers operating in states that permit retail competition in the electricity markets. In states that do not allow this retail competition, many utilities have begun offering green power options under what are typically referred to as green pricing programs. To find out what power marketers offer green power products in your area and if your utility offers a green pricing program, visit the Green Power Locator. offer green power products to consumers in deregulated markets-such as New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New England. In states that do not allow retail competitionHelp retail competition In states with retail competition, consumers have the opportunity to choose their energy provider and purchase products based on the price or on the source of power supplied to their home or business. in the electricity markets, many utilities offer renewable

Green Pricing
Definition: Green pricing refers to an optional utilityHelp utility A utility is a municipal or private business that provides electricity to the public and is subject to governmental regulation. service that allows customers of traditional utilities support a greater level of utility investment in renewable energyHelp renewable energy The term renewable energy generally refers to electricity supplied from renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, geothermal, hydropower, and various forms of biomass. These energy sources are considered renewable sources because they are continuously replenished on the Earth. by paying a premium on their electric bill to cover any above-market costs of acquiring renewable energy resources. To find out if your

Ground-level Ozone
Definition: Ground-level ozone is formed by a chemical reaction between volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen in the presence of sunlight. Ozone concentrations can reach unhealthful levels when the weather is hot and sunny with little or no wind. High concentrations of ozone near ground level are harmful

Haze
Definition: Haze consists of sufficient smoke, dust, moisture, and vapor suspended in air to impair visibility. The term regional haze means haze that impairs visibility in all directions over a large area.
Industrial Air Pollution
Definition: This term refers to the emissions of the following pollutants: sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxidesHelp nitrogen oxides Gases consisting of one molecule of nitrogen and varying numbers of oxygen molecules. Nitrogen oxides are produced in the emissions of vehicle exhausts and from power stations. In the atmosphere, nitrogen oxides can contribute to formation of photochemical ozone (smog), can impair visibility, and have health consequences; they are thus considered pollutants., mercury, and carbon dioxideHelp carbon dioxide A naturally occurring gas, and also a by-product of burning fossil fuels and biomass, as well as land-use changes and other industrial processes. It is the principal anthropogenic greenhouse gas that affects the earth’s radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured and therefore has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 1.. These air emissions contribute to such environmental concerns as urban smogHelp smog Smog is the brownish haze that pollutes our air, particularly over cities in the summertime. Smog can make it difficult for some people to breathe and it greatly reduces how far we can see through the air. The primary component of smog is ozone, a gas that is created when nitrogen oxides react with other chemicals in the atmosphere, especially in strong sunlight.; acid deposition; excessive nutrient loads to important bodies of water, such as the Chesapeake Bay;

Industrial Energy Customer
Definition: Industrial energy customers include businesses involved in manufacturing or industrial processing.
(Large) Hydroelectric Power
Definition: The process of generating electricity by harnessing the power of moving water is called hydroelectricity. Hydroelectric power (hydropower) is generated by forcing water that is flowing downstream, often from behind a dam, through a hydraulic turbine that is connected to a generator. The water exits the

Line Losses
Definition: The amount of energy lost during transmission and distribution of electricity, including unaccounted for uses.
Mercury/Mercury Compounds
Definition: Mercury is a toxic heavy metal that is a byproduct of thermo combustion of fossil fuelsHelp fossil fuels Fossil fuels are the nation’s principal source of electricity. The popularity of these fuels is largely due to their low costs. Fossil fuels come in three major forms-coal, oil, and natural gas. Because fossil fuels are a finite resource and cannot be replenished once they are extracted and burned, they are not considered renewable., especially coalHelp coal Coal is formed from plant and animal matter that has been subjected to geologic heat and pressure, transformed over millions of years into hard black solids. Because coal is a readily available resource in the United States, coal power plants provide about half of the nation’s electricity. However, coal-fired power plants generally cause more pollution per unit of electricity than any other fuel. Most coal plants are required to have several pollution control devices to reduce the amount of pollutants that are released into the air from burning the coal. These controls have played an important role in cleaning up air quality in many areas of the country.. Mercury and compounds containing mercury can accumulate in the environment and are highly toxic to humans and animals if inhaled or swallowed. Exposure can permanently damage the brain, kidneys, and fetuses.
Methane
Definition: A hydrocarbon that is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential most recently estimated at 23 times that of carbon dioxideHelp carbon dioxide A naturally occurring gas, and also a by-product of burning fossil fuels and biomass, as well as land-use changes and other industrial processes. It is the principal anthropogenic greenhouse gas that affects the earth’s radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured and therefore has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 1. (CO₂). Methane is produced through anaerobic (without oxygen) decomposition of waste in landfills, animal digestion, decomposition of animal wastes, production and distribution

Acronym: CH₄

Natural Gas
Definition: Underground deposits of gases consisting of 50 to 90 percent methaneHelp methane A hydrocarbon that is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential most recently estimated at 23 times that of carbon dioxide (CO�). Methane is produced through anaerobic (without oxygen) decomposition of waste in landfills, animal digestion, decomposition of animal wastes, production and distribution of natural gas and petroleum, coal production, and incomplete fossil fuel combustion. The global warming potential (GWP) is from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC’s) Third Assessment Report (TAR). (Ch3) and small amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds such as propane (C₃H₈) and butane (C₄H₁₀).
Nitrogen Oxides
Definition: Gases consisting of one molecule of nitrogen and varying numbers of oxygen molecules. Nitrogen oxides are produced in the emissions of vehicle exhausts and from power stations. In the atmosphere, nitrogen oxides can contribute to formation of photochemical ozone (smogHelp smog Smog is the brownish haze that pollutes our air, particularly over cities in the summertime. Smog can make it difficult for some people to breathe and it greatly reduces how far we can see through the air. The primary component of smog is ozone, a gas that is created when nitrogen oxides react with other chemicals in the atmosphere, especially in strong sunlight.), can impair visibility, and have

Acronym: NOX

Nuclear Energy
Definition: Nuclear energy originates from the splitting of uranium atoms in a process called fission. At the power plant, the fission process is used to generate heat for producing steam, which is used by a turbine to generate electricity. Because nuclear power plants do not burn fuel, they do not emit air pollutant

Oil
Definition: Oil, a liquid fossil fuel, is formed from layers of buried plants and animals that have been subjected to geologic heat and pressure over a long period of time. The energy that the plants and animals originally obtained from the sun is stored in the oil in the form of carbon. In addition to carbon, oil

Particulate Matter
Definition: Very small pieces of solid or liquid matter, such as particles of soot, dust, fumes, mists, or aerosols. The physical characteristics of particles, and how they combine with other particles, are part of the feedback mechanisms of the atmosphere.
Acronym: PM
Renewable Energy
Definition: The term renewable energy generally refers to electricity supplied from renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, geothermal, hydropower, and various forms of biomass. These energy sources are considered renewable sources because they are continuously replenished on the Earth.
Retail Competition
Definition: In states with retail competition, consumers have the opportunity to choose their energy provider and purchase products based on the price or on the source of power supplied to their home or business.
Small Hydro
Definition: In addition to very large hydro plants in the West, the United States has many smaller hydro plants. Like large plants, small-scale hydroelectric systems capture the energy in flowing water and convert it to electricity. Although the potential for small hydroelectric systems depends on the availability

Smog
Definition: Smog is the brownish hazeHelp haze Haze consists of sufficient smoke, dust, moisture, and vapor suspended in air to impair visibility. The term regional haze means haze that impairs visibility in all directions over a large area. that pollutes our air, particularly over cities in the summertime. Smog can make it difficult for some people to breathe and it greatly reduces how far we can see through the air. The primary component of smog is ozone, a gas that is created when nitrogen oxidesHelp nitrogen oxides Gases consisting of one molecule of nitrogen and varying numbers of oxygen molecules. Nitrogen oxides are produced in the emissions of vehicle exhausts and from power stations. In the atmosphere, nitrogen oxides can contribute to formation of photochemical ozone (smog), can impair visibility, and have health consequences; they are thus considered pollutants. react with other

Sulfur Dioxide
Definition: High concentrations of sulfur dioxide affect breathing and may aggravate existing respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Sensitive populations include asthmatics, individuals with bronchitis or emphysema, children, and the elderly. Sulfur dioxide is also a primary contributor to acid rainHelp acid rain Acid rain is a term used to describe several ways that acidic compounds fall out of the atmosphere, causing a variety of ground-level environmental effects. These effects include damage to forests and soils, fish and other living things, and human health. Acid rain also reduces how clearly we can see through the air, an effect called visibility reduction. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the primary causes of acid rain. In the United States, about two-thirds of all sulfur dioxide and one-quarter of all nitrogen oxides come from electric power generation that relies on burning fossil fuels like coal. Acid rain occurs when these gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form various acidic compounds. These acidic compounds fall to the earth as acidic rain, fog, and snow, or as dry deposited gases and particles that can be blown to the ground by the wind. In fact, prevailing winds can blow the compounds that cause acid rain across state and national borders, and sometimes over hundreds of miles., which causes

Utility
Definition: A utility is a municipal or private business that provides electricity to the public and is subject to governmental regulation.

 

 

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